Cairo Travel Guide

General Information About Cairo

Cairo, the city that has never known how to sleep, isn’t only Egypt’s capital, but it’s the budding heart and the exuberant side of the serene land of the Nile. When you visit Cairo, you will never run out of things to do and see, as this city never fails to surprise its visitors. It is the ultimate blend of the grandeur of one of the world’s oldest civilizations and the modern day’s activities. As soon as you get there, the first thing you will be doing is joining the bee-lines that are formed around the Pyramids ; but don’t waste the whole time there, as this city has much more beyond these remarkable edifices.

A large portion of the cultural and historical heritage of Egypt revolves around old Cairo; so when you’re there, don’t miss the opportunity of being taken on an enchanting tour to envision the glorious times of a once by-gone era. From the narrow streets of old Cairo, Coptic treasures , and Islamic Monuments  and historical buildings which are punctuated by mosques, edged by the city gates and presided over with the Citadel . Cairo also never runs out of plentiful must-see sights .

As the sun sets, the Nile River lights up with cruising restaurants and feluccas (sail boats), and the boisterous city starts to unleash its nightlife surprises.  The city has dozens of nightspots and a variety of settings where you can enjoy your night. Cairo’s bustling nightlife is diverse and has something for everyone, from quite intimate nights to those wild ones and from the austere dinner experiences to the posh five star service overlooking the Nile at a grand city hotel. Whatever your choice is, you can be sure to enjoy a night out. Lovers of traditional folklore may enjoy performances by talented artists at  the Cairo Opera House. Cairo caters to all tastes, so if you are well cultured, and if exploring new cultures is part of your journey, then El Sawy Wheel  makes an idyllic place for you. That isn’t all what the sprawling metropolis has to amuse you, as it invites you to relive the legend of the mysterious pharos at the Sound & Light shows  by the plateau of the great pyramids of Giza.

Dining in Cairo is a culinary adventure, as it offers a variety of the finest restaurants that serve different international cuisines, but if you really want to get introduced to the genuine taste of Egypt, you have to try its local cuisine. The Egyptian cuisine isn’t about tossing up delicious recipes, but it has something that suites that palate of one and all. Egyptian cuisine is served at the Imperial restaurants. 


When your visit comes to an end, don’t pack up and fly back just yet, as there are some places where you need to stop by and grab a reminder of your holiday in Egypt. In addition to Khan El Khalily , Cairo boasts an extensive collection of shopping outlets  from where you can buy souvenirs and gifts for your loved ones.

Old Cairo

Old Cairo is the land of unspeakable greatness. It's not just the Pharaonic monuments that have drawn travelers to this city since long before the birth of Christ - it's the legacy of the Romans and early Christians, and the profusion of art and architecture accumulated from centuries of successive Islamic dynasties. Old Cairo is the living proof that Egypt is the mother of the world. Once you get into that ancient city, you will notice a magnificent portrait of religious harmony, as mosques are standing next to churches. Whomever you are, Muslim or Christian, a historian or just a tourist, being in Old Cairo, namely the area that is now called Mogama3 El Adian (multi-religions compound) will just overwhelm you.

Coptic Cairo
Coptic Cairo is one of Old Cairo’s most archaic parts, and it is the original site of the Roman built Babylon. Some of these Roman walls still exist. Later, it became a Christian stronghold, with as many as 20 churches built within an area of one square mile. There are only five remaining, but these are certainly a must see when visiting Cairo, home of the oldest churches in the world. Its Roman remains and old cobbled alleys are capable of leaving any historian speechless.

The Hanging Church
The Hanging Church or St. Mary’s Church is possibly the most famous Coptic Christian as well as the first built in the Basilican style and simply one of the oldest in Egypt dating back to the 7th Century on the site of the site of an older 3rd and 4th century church. The church got its name for its location, suspending over a passage above the gatehouse of the Roman fortress of Babylon.
Entrance to the Hanging Church is via a beautifully-decorated gate leading into an open courtyard, flanked by mosaics, from which there are 29 steps to the church, the thing that made travelers in the olden days call it the Staircase church. At the top of the stairs are three wooden doors decorated with geometric patterns, framed with decorative carvings in the stone wall.
The church is known for its beautiful collection of restored ancient icons, the oldest of which dates back to the 8th century, and an old iconostasis inlaid with ivory and ebony. Many other artifacts from this church are now displayed in the Coptic Museum, including a lintel showing Christ's entry into Jerusalem that dates from the 5th or 6th century.
In the 11th century, it became the official residence of Alexandria’s Coptic patriarchs. When you visit this church, your soul will be captured by its impressive marble podium, icons, and friezes.

The Monastery and Church of St. George
There are two churches with the same name, Mar Girgis or St. George Church both commemorating christianity. One is a Greek Orthodox Church which was built in the 10th Century atop a Roman tower, that lends it its unique round shape, was torn down by fire and rebuilt in 1904.
The other Church of St. George was founded in 684 and rebuilt later after a fire tore it down in 1857. The only surviving chamber holds some real works of art, like the ceiling with colored frescos. It’s also believed that the Holy family rested where the church is standing, during their journey to Egypt.
The St George convent is an ancient nuns convent and inside it there is a huge shrine commemorating the martyr and is dated back to the tenth century, and its gate is about seven meters high.

The Coptic Museum
Visiting the Coptic Museum cannot be missed while visiting old Cairo, as it has largest collection of Egyptian Christian artifacts in the world. It was founded by Marcus Simaika Pasha in 1910 to house Coptic antiquities. The museum traces the history of Christianity in Egypt from its beginnings to the present day. It was erected on 8,000 square meters offered by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria under the guardianship of Pope Cyril V.

The world’s Islamic Beacon
Old Cairo embraces between its walls the world’s oldest and most renowned mosques. These mosques were constructed since the declaration of Islam as a new faith, and still standing till now proving their magnificence.

Mosque of Amr Ebn El-Aas
It’s the first mosque that was ever built in Egypt and Africa. It was constructed by the commander of the Muslim army that conquered Egypt and introduced the new faith of Islam. The mosque served as an educational institution and a court of setting religious and civil disputes, besides being the house of worship. The mosque was demolished and rebuilt twice. Due to extensive reconstruction over the centuries, nothing of the original building remains, but the rebuilt Mosque is a prominent landmark. It is an active mosque attended by earnest worshippers, and when prayers are not taking place, it is also open to visitors and tourists.

Al Azhar Mosque
Al Azhar mosque is considered as the first mosque that was constructed in the city of Cairo. It’s the reason why Cairo was called the “the city of a thousand minarets”. In addition to being a spectacular monument in its own, the mosque is surrounded by remarkable Islamic monuments from the 10th century. In order to let the Islamic world benefit from its significance, the mosque has became a teaching institute, and with the first lecture that was conducted in 975, the mosque was officially distinguished as the oldest university in the world. Schools were added to the complex of the mosque, and today lectures are conducted in the adjacent buildings while the mosque is only serving as a prayer area.

Al Hussein Mosque 
The mosque was named after grandson of Prophet Muhammad, Hussein Ebn Ali, whose head is believed by some to be buried on the grounds of the mosque. The mosque, considered to be one of the holiest Islamic sites in Cairo, was built on the cemetery of the Fatimid caliphs, a fact that was later discovered during the excavation. The Mosque hosts some very sacred items like the oldest believed complete manuscript of the Quran.

Ibn Tulun Mosque
For the visitor wishing to explore the heart of Islamic Cairo, the Ibn Tuln Mosque should not be missed. Situated in the Sayida Zainab, this mosque was built by Emir Ahmed Ibn Touloun in 879. The classic grandeur of its scale makes it one of the most imposing of all Cairo's great mosques. Its structure is an open court with a central ablution fountain, surrounded by four walls.

Al Azhar Park
Al Azhar Park, the largest green space built in Cairo for over a century, was constructed to act a window from which visitors can relive the Islamic Medieval Era. It provides an impressive view of the long standing Fatimid mosques, madrasas, and mausoleums form the west, overlooks the Citadel from the south, and to the east lays the infamous City of the Dead, a dense neighborhood within cemeteries. It wasn’t designed to provide a meditative landscape that overlooks the historic monuments only, but it also serves as the “green lung” that was much needed for a crowded city like Cairo. The park encompasses shaded walkways, marvelous lakes, and water fountains, kids’ area, a museum, a hilltop restaurant, and lakeside cafes.

A Jewish insignia
Synagogue of Ben Ezra
The 9th century Synagogue is one of the oldest in Egypt and occupies the shell of a 4th century church. It was renovated by a rabbi from Jerusalem, Abraham Ben Ezra, after whom it got its name. One of the legends that marks the place is about the prophet Jeremiah who gathered the Jews there, after the temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. A spring nearby is said to be where Mary washed Jesus, and where the Egyptian princess found Moses in a basket. The synagogue was the hideout of many manuscripts. These manuscripts included the Hebrew- Arabic documents, dating back to the Fatimid Era, and portrayed the conditions of Jews living under the Arab rule and described the different Jewish sects and the relation between them. A rare interpretation of the Old Testament was also unleashed, in addition to describing the relationship between the Jews and the Muslim Authorities.

Islamic Monuments

Al- Ghori Mausoleum
The elegant Mausoleum of Al Ghori is the red – checkered minaret among the 1000 minarets of the city of Cairo. Its minaret along with grand Mosque-Madrassa of al Ghori forms an exquisite monument to the end of the Mamluk era. Qonsouah al Ghori, the penultimate Mamluk sultan, ruled for 16 years. At the age of 78, he rode to Syria at the head of his army to battle the Ottoman Turks. The head of the defeated Al-Ghori was sent to Constantinople; his body was never recovered. This ancient mausoleum that dates back to 1505 includes the body of Tumanbay, his short lived successor, hanged by the Turks at Bab Zuweila. It’s distinguished by its beautifully decorated interiors and soaring ceiling, in addition to its minaret that is possible to be climbed.

Mohamed Ali Mosque
Mohamed Ali Mosque, Cairo’s skyline, consists of a square prayer hall, roofed by a large dome supported by four columns. There are also four semi-domes at the sides and other small domes above each of the four corners of the mosque. Above the northern wall of the mosque rise two slim, elegant minarets in the Ottoman style.

Mosque of Qaitbey
This mosque lends Cairo its uniquely Muslim atmosphere with its dazzling façade. This façade features bold stripes and a lattice screened windows. With its loads of marbles this mosque is considered the most pleasant places in Cairo to sit for a while and relax. It was built by the Sultan Qaitbey, the last Mamluk leader with real power in Egypt. Its adjacent tomb contains his cenotaphs and his two sisters, as well as two stones that supposedly bear the footprints of the Prophet. The true glory, however, is above, where the dome was carved with interlaced star and floral designs; its intricacy and delicacy were never surpassed in Cairo or anywhere else in the Islamic world - climb the minaret for the best view.

Bab Zuweila
It symbolizes is a medieval gate in Cairo, which is still standing in modern times. It was also known as Bawabbat al-Mitwali during the Ottoman period. It is the last remaining southern gate from the walls of Fatimid Cairo in the 11th and 12th century.

Al Baron Palace
Al Baron Palace, one of Cairo’s legendary and fascinating landmarks, was built by a French architect for the Belgian Baron Édouard Empain between 1907 and 1910. It has become the subject of urban legends since its construction. It gets its fantastical look from its Hindu style edifice. Its garden embraces a multiplicity of effigies of Buddha, Shiva, and Krishna, as well as statues of many exotic beasts. The palace is surrounded by terraces, each abound with distinct marble statues and exotic vegetation. The founder of Heliopolis, a Belgian industrialist Baron Empain is buried in the small replica of Aya Sofya, the Basilica nearby the palace in the Heliopolis district.

Cairo Sightseeings

Egyptian Museum
Housing more than 120,000 artifacts in 107 halls, the Egyptian Museum is the home to the most extensive collection if ancient Egyptian antiquities in the world. This is what makes it hard to get around everything in one visit. If you’re itinerary is hectic, and you scheduled only one visit for the museum, then you concentrate in some astonishing highlights which are; the Amarna Room, devoted to Akhenaten, the 'heretic king' portrayed with Mick Jagger-like lips; the Graeco-Roman Mummies; the glittering galleries that display an astounding array of finery extracted from New Kingdom tombs found at the Delta site of Tanis; and the larger-than-life-size statue of Khafrea (Chephren), which many consider to be the museum's masterpiece. Two more things that you cannot deprive your eyes from are the shimmering treasure of the young new kingdom pharaoh Tutankhamun and the amazing solid- gold death mask.
 
Cairo Tower
Cairo Tower also known as Gezira Tower isn’t only the city’s splendid tower that lights up the Nile, but it’s also its most renowned landmark after the Pyramids. Built in 1961, the Gezira tower represents a 185m-high wicker work tube. You can observe the restless Cairo through its 360- degree spectacular views. Dining in the tower is exceptional, as you can experience an exotic meal in its revolving restaurant, or just pause at its cafeteria.
 
El Manial Palace
The vividly painted architecture lining in the walls of El Manial palace may be the most famous feature of it, and the stunning harmonious combination of the Ottoman, Moorish, Persian and European rococo that can ever be seen in the world. Today the palace houses an assortment of collections in five buildings, including a Hunting Museum housing Farouk's huge horde of dusty stuffed hunting trophies - not recommended for animal lovers. It was built in the early part of the 20th century as a residence for Prince Mohamed Ali Tawfik. The main palace encompasses giant rooms that are authentically furnished. The prince’s private museum displays some of his manuscripts, clothing, silver objects, furniture, writing implements and other items dating from medieval times to the 19th century. Stroll through the beautiful gardens afterwards, planted with rare tropical plants and marvelous palms collected by the prince on his travels. 
 
Monasterli Palace 
Situated in a serene Nileside garden, Monasterli Palace is a complete sustenance for mind and soul. It was constructed in 1851 for an Ottoman Pasha whose family hailed from Monastir, in northern Greece. The Slamalik that was built for public functions is nowadays a classy venue for concerts, while the other part is now the ‘Um Kalthoum Museum’. Dedicated to the most famous Arab diva, the small museum is more like a shrine, given the reverence with which the singer's signature rhinestone-trimmed glasses and glittery gowns are hung under spotlights in display cases. There's a multimedia room where you can listen to her music, and a short film shows key moments of her life, from the beginning when she performed disguised as a Bedouin boy, to her magnetic performances that brought Cairo to a standstill, to her funeral, when millions of mourners flooded the streets.
 

Cairo at Night

Cairo is even livelier at night than it is during the day.  They may be famous for their ability to barter, exchange, haggle and socialise but the Cairenes have always known how to enjoy themselves too!  Shopping, socialising and drinking coffee are all activities of the day.  As the sun goes down the people come out to begin the serious business of eating, drinking and dancing.   Cairo’s nightlife goes on for as long as you can stand the pace and even though most places wind down around 3.00 or 4.00 in the morning, you will still find some that are open 24 hours. Wednesdays and Thursdays are the best days for big nights out.

 

Although Egypt is a Muslim country and many Cairenes can enjoy themselves all night long by only drinking soft drinks, alcohol is not difficult to come by for those who want it. Some Muslims are more devout than others, but if you are with Egyptian friends or acquaintances and they decline your offer of a drink, they’re not being rude and you should be sensitive to their religious beliefs.  A large selection of international beers, wines and cocktails is freely available in the bars and restaurants of most of Cairo’s hotels and many will also stage lavish cabarets and live shows that mean you don’t need to go outside the confines of the hotel to get a flavour of the city.  Some, Like the Iberotel Cairo Hotel & Casino will also provide the sophisticated ambiance of a lavish casino for night time entertainment.

 

If you want a true flavour of Cairo nightlife outside the sanitised luxury  of the many excellent hotels, try  the ‘ baladi’  bars, often called 'cafeterias' to disguise the fact that they are selling alcohol, in the Sharia Alfy area around the Medan Orabi.  They are perfectly safe, although they are a little basic and women on their own might feel uncomfortable in what is essentially an all male environment. 

Shopping and Leisure in Cairo

Khan El Khalily
Khan el Khalily is one of Cairo’s largest bazaars that was built in 1382 in the heart of the Fatimid City. It is named for its caravanserai. It contributed in establishing the city as a major trade center and led to its early wealth. This is a true shoppers' paradise. It is a breathtaking place in which to find bargains for an astounding range of Egyptian craft products: jewelry, leatherwork, brass, copper, alabaster, inlaid work, Sakkara carpets, and numerous small gifts including the beautiful, recently revived art of painting on papyrus. But shopping is not the only option at Khan El-Khalily. The visitor can also unwind in a teahouse with its old tables and chairs spilling out onto the pavement. There is a relaxing way of watching the incessant stream of passers-by, while refreshing oneself with a delicious glass of mint tea or Red Kerkade juice, or perhaps savoring the fine tobacco from a Turkish nargila pipe.

Nagada
If you're expecting this to be an ordinary little souvenir store tucked into a by-lane of the busy streets of Cairo, think again. It boosts an assortment of the finest qualities and most affordable souvenirs. Color-saturated, hand-woven silks, cottons and linens are the mainstay of this lox shop in a grand villa – buy by the yard, or in boxy, drapey women's and men's apparel. There's also very pretty handmade pottery from Al-Fayoum.

City Stars
City Stars, Cairo’s Capital, and one of its hottest landmarks, is located just few minutes away from Cairo International Airport. It features 5- star international hotels, entertainment and shopping center, in addition to a medical center, residential and office towers. This complex covers an entire city block and is considered the first integrated urban development of its kind in the Middle East and Europe. In addition to its array of local and international brands outlets, and a state of the art cinema complex, City stars features a modern replica of Khan EL Khalily, and several food courts

El Diwan Bookstore
Al Diwan Bookstore has been designed to meet Western expectations, and boasts of international best-sellers, children's fiction, historical novels and political works. You will also find software, along with travel-guides and self-help titles. To top it all, there is a little cafeteria in here too, as well as a stationery section.

Beymen
This Turkish department store is the last word in luxury shopping in Cairo, stocking Prada et al alongside its chic house brand. It boosts a huge selection of scarves and perfume.

El Shorouk Bookstore
If you are searching for an Arabic and English bestsellers, finding them is guaranteed at this two-storey shop. El Shorouk bookstore also offers a lot of magazines .

The Sound & Light Shows - Pyramids

The sound and lights shows grant you with the opportunity to attend the reawakening of the pyramids, as history comes to life with each show and provides the audience with a magical experience of learning about ancient Egypt. We don’t promise you that these shows will tell you how these magnificent pyramids were exactly built. Don’t also expect that you will find the solution of the Sphinx unsolved mystery, but all we can guarantee is that these glorious towering structures will manage to humble you with their size, at the same time as they testify to the great human spirit that created them.

Cairo Opera House

Experience the iconic and quintessential sound of Cairo at its Opera House that has been standing for more than 102 years. The complex is truly extravagant and its architecture is postmodernist, yet incorporates Islamic and Pharaonic motifs. It features two halls, one of which is strictly black tie while the other is little more informal. The complex also encompasses an open air entrance amphitheatre performances. It provides the most comprehensive technical and stage facilities in Africa and the Middle East. It represents and promotes the performing companies affiliated with the National Cultural Center: Cairo Symphony Orchestra, Cairo Ballet Company, Cairo Opera Company, Cairo Opera Choir, Arabic Music Ensemble, National Arabic Music Ensemble, and the Cairo Opera Children’s Coir.

El Sawy Cultural Wheel

The El Sawy Culture wheel, Cairo’s  cultural spirit, is an inclusive cultural center laying on a 5,000 m2 area right under the 15th of May bridge on Zamalek island. It values human beings without any kind of classification.  It operates all year round seven days a week from 8 am till the last show ends, offering two to four events a day. It provides culture and art at affordable prices. On an average day about 1,500 people visit, on special days the number may exceed 2,000. This results in nearly 500,000 visitors a year. In 2009 El Sawy Culture wheel organized 25 festivals and contests.

Khan El Khalily

Khan el Khalily is one of Cairo’s largest bazaars that was built in 1382 in the heart of the Fatimid City. It is named for its caravanserai. It contributed in establishing the city as a major trade center and led to its early wealth. This is a true shoppers' paradise. It is a breathtaking place in which to find bargains for an astounding range of Egyptian craft products: jewelry, leatherwork, brass, copper, alabaster, inlaid work, Sakkara carpets, and numerous small gifts including the beautiful, recently revived art of painting on papyrus. But shopping is not the only option at Khan El-Khalily.

The visitor can also unwind in a teahouse with its old tables and chairs spilling out onto the pavement. There is a relaxing way of watching the incessant stream of passers-by, while refreshing oneself with a delicious glass of mint tea or Red Kerkade juice, or perhaps savoring the fine tobacco from a Turkish nargila pipe.

Cairo Attractions

Cairo Is the capital of Egypt (Arabic El-Qahira)

the biggest city on the African continent and in the Islamic world, this city was named "Cairo" by Jawhar Al- Siqqilli, which means "The Victorious", it is known as "City of the Thousand Minarets" because its famous for its mosques, some also calls it "Land of the Pharaohs". from long time known also by the "Gateway to the East” With the main part of the city on the right bank of the Nile & south of the point where the river divides into the Rosetta and Damietta arms.On the east, side of the city raises the barren reddish rock walls of the Moqattam Hills, beyond which extends the Eastern (Arabian) Desert.

To the south, the city reaches out by way of Old Cairo to the suburb of Maadi; to the west, the newer districts spread beyond the Nile into the Western (Libyan) Desert.With an estimated population of just over 18 million (2007), Cairo is the seat of government, and the residence of the heads of the Islamic, Coptic and Catholic Coptic religious communities. It has several universities and colleges of high academic standing, more over, in this city where ancient temples and fortresses, beautiful mosques and churches and colorful bazaars sit side by side with modern shopping malls, luxury hotels and first class restaurants. The good news is that Cairo is "alive" 24 hours a day, enabling you to visit the historical sites in and around Cairo during the day and to eat, shop or relax in the evening, when the vibrant city takes on a new face, allowing you to enjoy visit the famous Sound and Light Show or sample excellent cuisine, whilst soaking up the atmosphere in one of the many traditional restaurants or on board a fabulous Nile dinner cruise. Cairo’s variety of products satisfies various tastes and different levels of income .these centers are in and around Cairo, they provide qualities, which rival international standards. Optional shopping tours can be arranged upon request.

The Cairo Tower

The Cairo Tower is a free-standing concrete tower in Cairo, Egypt. It stands in the Zamalek district on Gezira Island in the River Nile, very close to the city centre. At 187 m & it is 43 meters higher than the Great Pyramid of Giza, It is one of Cairo's most famous and well-known landmarks.The Cairo Tower was built from 1956 to 1961, it was designed by the Egyptian architect Naoum Chebib, the tower's partially open lattice-work design is intended to evoke a lotus plant. The tower is crowned by a circular observation deck and a rotating restaurant with a view of all over Cairo.

One rotation takes approximately 70 minutes.After last renovation, Cairo tower had a new look especially at night as it now lights up using different colour schemes. it can be seen in different colures , against the Nile.

The Egyptian Museum

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities or it commonly named as the Egyptian Museum, which, placed in Cairo, Egypt, it is the home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with a representative amount on display, & the remainder in storerooms It contains many important pieces of ancient Egyptian history & the world’s largest collection of Pharaonic antiquities, and many treasures of King Tutankhamen the museum also host the famous Royal Mummy Room, containing about 27 royal mummies from different pharaonic era, Today there are about 9

mummies displayed. One of them is the newly discovered It was built in 1835 near the Ezbekeyah Garden. The museum soon moved to Boulaq in 1858 French architect designed and constructs a new museum for the antiquities. The new building was to be constructed on the bank of the Nile River in Boulaq. In 1878, after the museum was completed for some time, it suffered some irreversible damage; a flood of the Nile River caused the antiquities to be relocated to another museum, in Giza. The artifacts remained there until 1902 when they were moved, for the last time to the current museum in Tahrir Square, more over there are another place in Giza area beside the three pyramids are chosen to be the last place for the Egyptian museum for ever that is now under construction.

The Great Sphinx

The Great Sphinx of Giza or known commonly as the Sphinx is a statue of a reclining or couchant sphinx (a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head) that stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, near modern-day Cairo, Egypt. It is the largest monolith statue in the world, standing 73.5 meters (241 ft) long, 6 meters (20 ft) wide, and 20.22 m (66.34 ft) high. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom in the reign of the pharaoh Khafra

The Great Sphinx is one of the world's largest and oldest statues, that there are many theories of construction and various alternative theories — about the builder or the dating, to explain the Sphinx's construction. The most convenience that the Sphinx was probably the focus of solar worship in the Early Dynastic Period, before the Giza Plateau became a necropolis in the Old Kingdom so the conclusions that the Sphinx, the Sphinx temple, the Causeway and the Khafra mortuary temple are all part of a complex which predates Dynasty IV. The lion has long been a symbol associated with the sun in ancient Near Eastern civilizations. Images depicting the Egyptian king in the form of a lion smiting his enemies date as far back as the Early Dynastic Period. In the New Kingdom, the Sphinx became more specifically associated with the god Horus at the Horizon, which represented the pharaoh in his role as the Living Image of the god Atum. Generally, pharaohs believe that the role of sphinxes is associated with architectural structures such as royal tombs or religious temples, as ancient Egyptian believed that they are the guardians of their necropolises.

The Pyramids of Giza

It stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. This complex of ancient Egyptian monuments includes the three pyramids known as the Great Pyramids, along with the massive sculpture known as the Great Sphinx. The only remaining monument of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. These huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the world's largest constructions. The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called the Pyramid of Khufu and also with the Pyramid of Cheops, It is believed that the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty

Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) and constructed over a 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure, you can see original around the base .Its construction techniques are unique & most accepted construction hypotheses based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place.
The pyramid had three known chambers from inside, the lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. The King & Queen's Chamber are higher up within the pyramid structure. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only pyramid in Egypt known to contain both ascending and descending passages. The main part of the Giza complex is a setting of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile),beside the pyramid there are three subsidiary smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives & a raised causeway connecting the two temples, and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.

The Saladin Citadel

The Saladin Citadel of Cairo is a fortification in Cairo, Egypt.
It is located, as part of the Muqattam hill near the center of Cairo, was once famous for its fresh breeze and grand views of the city, and was fortified by the Ayyubid ruler Salah al-Din (Saladin) to protect it from the Crusaders.
Only a few years after defeating the Fatimid Caliphate, Saladin set out to build a wall that would surround both Cairo and Fustat. Saladin is recorded as saying, "With a wall Iwill make the two [cities of Cairo and Fustat] into a unique whole , so that one army

may defend them both; and I believe it good to encircle them with a single wall from the bank of the Nile to the bank of the Nile."
The Citadel would be the centerpiece of the wall. Built on a promontory beneath the Muqattam Hills, a setting that made it difficult to attack. To supply water to the Citadel, Saladin built the Well of Joseph, which can still be seen till today. This well is also known as the Well of the Spiral because its entrance consisted of 300 stairs that wound around the inside of the well. The Citadel is sometimes referred to as Mohamed Ali Citadel, because it contains the Mosque of Mohamed Ali Pasha, perched on the summit of the citadel. This Ottoman mosque was built in memory of Tusun Pasha, Muhammad Ali's oldest son, However, it also represents Muhammad Ali's efforts to erase symbols of the Mamluk dynasty that he replaced. When Ottoman ruler Muhammad Ali Pasha took control from the Mamluks ,he altered many of the additions to the Citadel that reflected Cairo's previous leaders. The mosque is the other feature of the Citadel that reflects the reign of Muhammad Ali. This feature, with its large dome and overtly Ottoman influenced architecture, looms over the Citadel to this day. Recently destroyed Mamluk palaces within the Citadel provided space for the formidable mosque, which was the largest structure to be established in the early 1800s. Placing the mosque where the Mamluks had once reigned was an obvious effort to erase the memory of the older rulers and establish the importance of the new leader. The mosque also replaced the mosque of al-Nasir as the official state mosque. There are two other mosques at the Citadel, hypostyle Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad from the early Bahri Mamluk period, and the 16th c. Mosque of Suleyman Pasha, first of the Citadel's Ottoman-style mosques. The citadel also contains Al-Gawhara Palace, the National Military Museum and the Police Museum.

Hanging Church

Saint Virgin Mary's Coptic Church & also known as the Hanging Church & also (The Suspended) & it is the oldest churches in Egypt that dated back to the 3rd century A.D
Its location is a reason for its name as (The Suspended) Church it situated above a gatehouse of Babylon Fortress, the Roman fortress in Coptic old Cairo; its nave is suspended over a passage. The church is approached by 29 steps; so it named also with "the Staircase church” The land surface raised by some 6 meters since the Romanperiod so that the Roman tower is mostly buried under ground , reducing

the visual impact of the church's elevated position. The entrance from the street is through iron gates under a pointed stone arch.
The Hanging Church has 110 icons & the façade dates back to the nineteenth century with twin bell towers & shown beyond a narrow courtyard decorated with modern art biblical designs Up the steps and through the entrance is a further small courtyard leading to the eleventh century outer porch The Hanging Church is the most famous Coptic Christian church in Cairo, as well as possibly the first built in Basilican style. It was probably built during the patriarchate of Isaac However; the earliest mention of the church was a statement in the biography of the patriarch Joseph , most of historical objects are transferred & placed now at the Coptic Museum.

Ibn Tulun Mosque

The Mosque of Ahmad Ibn Tulun is located in Cairo, Egypt. It is the oldest mosque in the city surviving in its original form, and is the largest mosque in Cairo in terms of land area. The mosque was specially made by Ahmad ibn Tulun, the Abbassid governor of Egypt whose rule was characterized by de facto independence.The mosque was constructed on a small hill called Gebel Yashkur, "The Hill of Thanksgiving." One local legend says that it is here that Noah's Ark came to rest after the Deluge, instead of at Mount Ararat.The grand ceremonial mosque was intended as the focal point of Ibn

Tulun's capital al-Qatta'i, which served as the center of administration for the Tulunid dynasty. The mosque originally was backed by ibn Tulun's palace, and a door adjacent to the minbar allowed him direct entry to the mosque. Al-Qatta'i was razed in the early 10th century, AD, and the mosque is the only surviving structure. The mosque was constructed in the Samarran style common with Abbassid constructions. The mosque is constructed around a courtyard, with one covered hall on each of the four sides, the largest being on the side of the qibla, or direction to Mecca. The original mosque had its ablution fountain (sabil) in the area between the inner and outer walls. the Sultan Lajin was added A distinctive sabil with a high drum dome in the central courtyard.
The mosque has been restored several times during different ears & recently restored by the Egyptian supreme Council of Antiquities.

Jewish Synagogue

 

Jewish Synagogue named as “The Sha'ar Hashamayim Synagogue” or *the gate of heaven*the synagogue was also known as the Temple of Ismailia and is located in Cairo, Egyptthe Adly Street Synagogue. For long time its leader was Chief Rabbi Chaim Nahum. In 2008, the synagogue marked its 100th anniversary; the synagogue was built in a style evoking ancient Egyptian temples, and was once the largest building on the boulevard.When the synagogue opened in 1899, there was a vibrant Jewish community in Cairo.

The last time the synagogue was full was in the 1960, today the community numbers 30-40 members, most of them older women. Although it is considered a Sephardic synagogue, many Ashkenazi Jews were members of the congregation and contributed to its construction and upkeep. In February 2010, a booby-trapped suitcase was hurled at the synagogue from a nearby hotel. The suitcase caught fire, but no one was hurt and no damage was reported.

Khan El Khalili

Khan el-Khalili is a major Famous souk in the Islamic district of Cairo. The bazaar district is one of Cairo's main attractions for tourists and Egyptians alike.
The souk dates back to 1382, when Emir Djaharks el-Khalili built a large caravanserai in Cairo under the Burji Mamluk Sultan Barquq; the eponymous khan is still extant. By the time of Barquq, the first Circassian Mamluk Sultan much reconstruction needed to be done within the walls of the city in order to repair the damage incurred because of the Black Death. When Barquq started his madrassa in Bayn el-Qasrayn, markets were

rebuilt, and Khan el-Khalili was established. It was also known as the Turkish bazaar during the Ottoman Empire. In addition to shops, there are several coffeehouses, restaurants, and street food vendors distributed throughout the market. The coffee shops are generally small and quite traditional, serving Arabic coffee and usually offering shisha. The al-Hussein Mosque is also in Khan el-Khalili; Al-Azhar University and its mosque are not far away, another famous place to hang out in Khan el Khalili is "Qahwet el Fishawy" this place is incredible for everyone; they serve one of the best shisha in Egypt.
 

Sultan Hassan

The Sultan Hassan Mosque is considered one from the stylical mosques & the most compact and unified of all Cairo monuments. It is one of the masterpieces of Mamluk architecture. The building was by Sultan Hassan bin Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qalawun in 1356 AD as a mosque and religious school for all four juristic branches of Sunni Islam. It was designed so that each of the four schools of thought - Shafi, Maliki, Hanafi and Hanbali - has its own area while sharing the mosque. Construction took about 7 years; Building materials used were harvested from the casing stones of the Giza Necropolis.

One of the minarets collapsed during construction killing 300 people. The state was able to fund the massive structure through the properties that were left behind by the victims of the Black Death. The Sultan was assassinated before the mosque was completed and his body was never recovered. The magnificent burial chamber that was intended for him holds his two sons instead.
The façade of the mosque is 76 meters long and 36 meters high. The cornices, the entrance portal, the burial chamber, and the monumental staircase are particularly noteworthy. Verses from the Quran in elegant Kufic and Thuluth scripts adorn the inner walls.
Sultan Hassan Mosque surrounded with the left side along with the later El Rifai Mosque & right side with the two smaller Ottoman mosques (foreground) – Cairo.

The Coptic Museum

The Coptic Museum situated at Coptic Cairo, Egypt rich with the largest collection of Egyptian Christian artifacts in the world. It was founded by Marcus Simaika Pasha in 1910 to house Coptic antiquities, The Coptic museum marked out the history of Christianity in Egypt from its beginnings to the present day. It was built on 8,000 square meters offered by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria under the guardianship of Pope Cyril V. The Coptic museum houses the world's most important examples of Coptic art artifacts and artwork, The objects are grouped into different

mediums , such as stonework , woodwork, metalwork, textiles and manuscripts The total number of objects on display is about 15,000 object. Finally, Coptic Monuments are considered as a link between Ancient Egyptian Art during the Pharaonic and the Graeco-Roman periods on one hand and the Islamic era on the other. This fact granted these monuments a great importance in the Egyptian Art in general.

The Islamic Museum

 

 Cairo Is the capital of Egypt (Arabic El-Qahira)
  the biggest city on the African continent and in the Islamic world, this city was named "Cairo" by Jawhar Al- Siqqilli, which means "The Victorious", it is known as "City of the Thousand Minarets" because its famous for its mosques, some also calls it "Land of the Pharaohs". from long time known also by the "Gateway to the East” With the main part of the city on the right bank of the Nile & south of the point where the river divides into the Rosetta and Damietta arms.On the east, side of the city raises the barren reddish rock walls of the Moqattam Hills, beyond which extends the Eastern (Arabian) Desert.

To the south, the city reaches out by way of Old Cairo to the suburb of Maadi; to the west, the newer districts spread beyond the Nile into the Western (Libyan) Desert.With an estimated population of just over 18 million (2007), Cairo is the seat of government, and the residence of the heads of the Islamic, Coptic and Catholic Coptic religious communities. It has several universities and colleges of high academic standing, more over, in this city where ancient temples and fortresses, beautiful mosques and churches and colorful bazaars sit side by side with modern shopping malls, luxury hotels and first class restaurants. The good news is that Cairo is "alive" 24 hours a day, enabling you to visit the historical sites in and around Cairo during the day and to eat, shop or relax in the evening, when the vibrant city takes on a new face, allowing you to enjoy visit the famous Sound and Light Show or sample excellent cuisine, whilst soaking up the atmosphere in one of the many traditional restaurants or on board a fabulous Nile dinner cruise. Cairo’s variety of products satisfies various tastes and different levels of income .these centers are in and around Cairo, they provide qualities, which rival international standards. Optional shopping tours can be arranged upon request.

     
 The Egyptian Museum
 

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities or it commonly named as the Egyptian Museum, which, placed in Cairo, Egypt, it is the home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with a representative amount on display, & the remainder in storerooms It contains many important pieces of ancient Egyptian history & the world’s largest collection of Pharaonic antiquities, and many treasures of King Tutankhamen the museum also host the famous Royal Mummy Room, containing about 27 royal mummies from different pharaonic era, Today there are about 9

mummies displayed. One of them is the newly discovered It was built in 1835 near the Ezbekeyah Garden. The museum soon moved to Boulaq in 1858 French architect designed and constructs a new museum for the antiquities. The new building was to be constructed on the bank of the Nile River in Boulaq. In 1878, after the museum was completed for some time, it suffered some irreversible damage; a flood of the Nile River caused the antiquities to be relocated to another museum, in Giza. The artifacts remained there until 1902 when they were moved, for the last time to the current museum in Tahrir Square, more over there are another place in Giza area beside the three pyramids are chosen to be the last place for the Egyptian museum for ever that is now under construction.

     
 The Pyramids of Giza
   
 

It stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. This complex of ancient Egyptian monuments includes the three pyramids known as the Great Pyramids, along with the massive sculpture known as the Great Sphinx. The only remaining monument of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. These huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the world's largest constructions. The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called the Pyramid of Khufu and also with the Pyramid of Cheops, It is believed that the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty

Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) and constructed over a 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure, you can see original around the base .Its construction techniques are unique & most accepted construction hypotheses based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place.
The pyramid had three known chambers from inside, the lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. The King & Queen's Chamber are higher up within the pyramid structure. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only pyramid in Egypt known to contain both ascending and descending passages. The main part of the Giza complex is a setting of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile),beside the pyramid there are three subsidiary smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives & a raised causeway connecting the two temples, and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.

     
 The Great Sphinx
 

The Great Sphinx of Giza or known commonly as the Sphinx is a statue of a reclining or couchant sphinx (a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head) that stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, near modern-day Cairo, Egypt. It is the largest monolith statue in the world, standing 73.5 meters (241 ft) long, 6 meters (20 ft) wide, and 20.22 m (66.34 ft) high. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom in the reign of the pharaoh Khafra

The Great Sphinx is one of the world's largest and oldest statues, that there are many theories of construction and various alternative theories — about the builder or the dating, to explain the Sphinx's construction. The most convenience that the Sphinx was probably the focus of solar worship in the Early Dynastic Period, before the Giza Plateau became a necropolis in the Old Kingdom so the conclusions that the Sphinx, the Sphinx temple, the Causeway and the Khafra mortuary temple are all part of a complex which predates Dynasty IV. The lion has long been a symbol associated with the sun in ancient Near Eastern civilizations. Images depicting the Egyptian king in the form of a lion smiting his enemies date as far back as the Early Dynastic Period. In the New Kingdom, the Sphinx became more specifically associated with the god Horus at the Horizon, which represented the pharaoh in his role as the Living Image of the god Atum. Generally, pharaohs believe that the role of sphinxes is associated with architectural structures such as royal tombs or religious temples, as ancient Egyptian believed that they are the guardians of their necropolises.

 
 The Saladin Citadel
   

The Saladin Citadel of Cairo is a fortification in Cairo, Egypt.
It is located, as part of the Muqattam hill near the center of Cairo, was once famous for its fresh breeze and grand views of the city, and was fortified by the Ayyubid ruler Salah al-Din (Saladin) to protect it from the Crusaders.
Only a few years after defeating the Fatimid Caliphate, Saladin set out to build a wall that would surround both Cairo and Fustat. Saladin is recorded as saying, "With a wall Iwill make the two [cities of Cairo and Fustat] into a unique whole , so that one army

may defend them both; and I believe it good to encircle them with a single wall from the bank of the Nile to the bank of the Nile."
The Citadel would be the centerpiece of the wall. Built on a promontory beneath the Muqattam Hills, a setting that made it difficult to attack. To supply water to the Citadel, Saladin built the Well of Joseph, which can still be seen till today. This well is also known as the Well of the Spiral because its entrance consisted of 300 stairs that wound around the inside of the well. The Citadel is sometimes referred to as Mohamed Ali Citadel, because it contains the Mosque of Mohamed Ali Pasha, perched on the summit of the citadel. This Ottoman mosque was built in memory of Tusun Pasha, Muhammad Ali's oldest son, However, it also represents Muhammad Ali's efforts to erase symbols of the Mamluk dynasty that he replaced. When Ottoman ruler Muhammad Ali Pasha took control from the Mamluks ,he altered many of the additions to the Citadel that reflected Cairo's previous leaders. The mosque is the other feature of the Citadel that reflects the reign of Muhammad Ali. This feature, with its large dome and overtly Ottoman influenced architecture, looms over the Citadel to this day. Recently destroyed Mamluk palaces within the Citadel provided space for the formidable mosque, which was the largest structure to be established in the early 1800s. Placing the mosque where the Mamluks had once reigned was an obvious effort to erase the memory of the older rulers and establish the importance of the new leader. The mosque also replaced the mosque of al-Nasir as the official state mosque. There are two other mosques at the Citadel, hypostyle Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad from the early Bahri Mamluk period, and the 16th c. Mosque of Suleyman Pasha, first of the Citadel's Ottoman-style mosques. The citadel also contains Al-Gawhara Palace, the National Military Museum and the Police Museum.

     
 Ibn Tulun Mosque
   

The Mosque of Ahmad Ibn Tulun is located in Cairo, Egypt. It is the oldest mosque in the city surviving in its original form, and is the largest mosque in Cairo in terms of land area. The mosque was specially made by Ahmad ibn Tulun, the Abbassid governor of Egypt whose rule was characterized by de facto independence.The mosque was constructed on a small hill called Gebel Yashkur, "The Hill of Thanksgiving." One local legend says that it is here that Noah's Ark came to rest after the Deluge, instead of at Mount Ararat.The grand ceremonial mosque was intended as the focal point of Ibn

Tulun's capital al-Qatta'i, which served as the center of administration for the Tulunid dynasty. The mosque originally was backed by ibn Tulun's palace, and a door adjacent to the minbar allowed him direct entry to the mosque. Al-Qatta'i was razed in the early 10th century, AD, and the mosque is the only surviving structure. The mosque was constructed in the Samarran style common with Abbassid constructions. The mosque is constructed around a courtyard, with one covered hall on each of the four sides, the largest being on the side of the qibla, or direction to Mecca. The original mosque had its ablution fountain (sabil) in the area between the inner and outer walls. the Sultan Lajin was added A distinctive sabil with a high drum dome in the central courtyard.
The mosque has been restored several times during different ears & recently restored by the Egyptian supreme Council of Antiquities.

     
 Hanging Church
 

Saint Virgin Mary's Coptic Church & also known as the Hanging Church & also (The Suspended) & it is the oldest churches in Egypt that dated back to the 3rd century A.D
Its location is a reason for its name as (The Suspended) Church it situated above a gatehouse of Babylon Fortress, the Roman fortress in Coptic old Cairo; its nave is suspended over a passage. The church is approached by 29 steps; so it named also with "the Staircase church” The land surface raised by some 6 meters since the Romanperiod so that the Roman tower is mostly buried under ground , reducing

the visual impact of the church's elevated position. The entrance from the street is through iron gates under a pointed stone arch.
The Hanging Church has 110 icons & the façade dates back to the nineteenth century with twin bell towers & shown beyond a narrow courtyard decorated with modern art biblical designs Up the steps and through the entrance is a further small courtyard leading to the eleventh century outer porch The Hanging Church is the most famous Coptic Christian church in Cairo, as well as possibly the first built in Basilican style. It was probably built during the patriarchate of Isaac However; the earliest mention of the church was a statement in the biography of the patriarch Joseph , most of historical objects are transferred & placed now at the Coptic Museum.

     
 Sultan Hassan
 

The Sultan Hassan Mosque is considered one from the stylical mosques & the most compact and unified of all Cairo monuments. It is one of the masterpieces of Mamluk architecture. The building was by Sultan Hassan bin Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qalawun in 1356 AD as a mosque and religious school for all four juristic branches of Sunni Islam. It was designed so that each of the four schools of thought - Shafi, Maliki, Hanafi and Hanbali - has its own area while sharing the mosque. Construction took about 7 years; Building materials used were harvested from the casing stones of the Giza Necropolis.

One of the minarets collapsed during construction killing 300 people. The state was able to fund the massive structure through the properties that were left behind by the victims of the Black Death. The Sultan was assassinated before the mosque was completed and his body was never recovered. The magnificent burial chamber that was intended for him holds his two sons instead.
The façade of the mosque is 76 meters long and 36 meters high. The cornices, the entrance portal, the burial chamber, and the monumental staircase are particularly noteworthy. Verses from the Quran in elegant Kufic and Thuluth scripts adorn the inner walls.
Sultan Hassan Mosque surrounded with the left side along with the later El Rifai Mosque & right side with the two smaller Ottoman mosques (foreground) – Cairo.

 

 

 

 
 Khan El Khalili
 

Khan el-Khalili is a major Famous souk in the Islamic district of Cairo. The bazaar district is one of Cairo's main attractions for tourists and Egyptians alike.
The souk dates back to 1382, when Emir Djaharks el-Khalili built a large caravanserai in Cairo under the Burji Mamluk Sultan Barquq; the eponymous khan is still extant. By the time of Barquq, the first Circassian Mamluk Sultan much reconstruction needed to be done within the walls of the city in order to repair the damage incurred because of the Black Death. When Barquq started his madrassa in Bayn el-Qasrayn, markets were

rebuilt, and Khan el-Khalili was established. It was also known as the Turkish bazaar during the Ottoman Empire. In addition to shops, there are several coffeehouses, restaurants, and street food vendors distributed throughout the market. The coffee shops are generally small and quite traditional, serving Arabic coffee and usually offering shisha. The al-Hussein Mosque is also in Khan el-Khalili; Al-Azhar University and its mosque are not far away, another famous place to hang out in Khan el Khalili is "Qahwet el Fishawy" this place is incredible for everyone; they serve one of the best shisha in Egypt.
 
 The Coptic Museum
 

The Coptic Museum situated at Coptic Cairo, Egypt rich with the largest collection of Egyptian Christian artifacts in the world. It was founded by Marcus Simaika Pasha in 1910 to house Coptic antiquities, The Coptic museum marked out the history of Christianity in Egypt from its beginnings to the present day. It was built on 8,000 square meters offered by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria under the guardianship of Pope Cyril V. The Coptic museum houses the world's most important examples of Coptic art artifacts and artwork, The objects are grouped into different

mediums , such as stonework , woodwork, metalwork, textiles and manuscripts The total number of objects on display is about 15,000 object. Finally, Coptic Monuments are considered as a link between Ancient Egyptian Art during the Pharaonic and the Graeco-Roman periods on one hand and the Islamic era on the other. This fact granted these monuments a great importance in the Egyptian Art in general.

 
 The Islamic Museum
   

The Islamic museum art opened at the Gallery of Arab Antiquities in 1881 during the Reign of Khedive Tafiq, it house a Collection of 111 objects gathered from old mosques and mausolea of Egypt was originally exhibited in the arcades of the eastern Cloister of the mosque of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim 996-1021 A.D.Then after that, a new building was constructed in the courtyard of the same mosque in 1883 to house the enlarged Museum. By 1899 the government began to construct the present building hosting 3154 objects that exhibited to the public in the ground floor.

The bulk of the various collections of the museum create from Egypt and the Arab countries, and as the other regions where Islam dominated. The name of the museum was officially changed to the more comprehensive “Museum of Islamic Art “in 1952 in recognition of the positive contribution of non-Arab Muslims Sequential the Museum Collections of objects cover the period of the immediate pre-Islamic era of the 7th century up to the end of the 19th century. Within the 120 years of the Museum existence the inventory of objects had grown from the Original 111 objects to almost 103000 in its official registry in July 2000 including :
Kinds of Objects as of Arms & Armories, Carpets , Coins & Medals, Ceramics , Glass, Jewelry, Manuscripts, Measures & Weight, Metal-works, Stone & Marble Carvings, Textiles, and Wood-works. The Museum includes 25 halls located on the ground floor. The objects exhibited are displayed according to two rubrics :
1- Chronologically
Chronologically the Museum Collections of objects cover the period of the immediate pre-Islamic era of the 7th century up to the end of the 19th century. (Abbasid, tulunid ,Fatimid, Ayyuibid, Mamluk & Ottoman.
2-Materially
Wood-works,Metal-works,Arms, amour, Ceramics,carpets, stone carvings, Coins, weights and medals, Marble & Stone Carvings, Glass, Textile, JewelryManuscripts and book bindingWeights and stamps and measures.

Citadel

Coptic Churches

Coptic Museum

Giza Pyramids

Khan el Khalili

Memphis

Memphis Cairo Opera House

Cairo Opera House built in 1988, it’s a part of Cairo's National Cultural Center and it is the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital that hosting most of Egyptian's finest musical groups, and serves under the umbrella organization for all the music or dance companies, galleries, museums and the educational programs of the Cairo Opera House. it is located on the southern portion of Gezira Island in the Nile River, very close to downtown Cairo.After the visit of President Hosni Mubarak's to Japan in 1983, as result of that the complex was a gift from the nation of Japan to Egypt & then

the Construction began in May 1985 and lasted for three years.
In October 1988, President Mubarak and His Highness, the younger brother of the Japanese Emperor, inaugurated the National Cultural Centre Cairo Opera House at that time it was the first time for Japan to stage a Kabuki show, it’s a traditional popular drama with singing and dancing, in all over Africa and the Arab World.
Latter on, the London Royal Philharmonic Orchestra chose it as a venue for their first performance in the Middle East and Africa in January 2007.The Opera House opened with Rigoletto, one of Verdi's earlier masterpieces Aida & it was the first performed in 1871. The Khedivial Opera House was the first on the African continent to perform world famous operas and symphonic masterpieces , Cairo opera house goal is to promote the arts of music and dance and to preserve and renew traditional Arab music. In order to be more than just a place where music and art are performed the National Cultural Centre wants to give space to learning and inspiration, to the exchange of ideas, the respect of a common cultural heritage, and a shared passion for the arts. It encourages interest for music and art in the younger generation by offering ballet, voice or instrumental classes for talented children or youth’sThe performance at the opera house is presented in 3 Halls (Main hall, Small Hall & an Open-air Theatre).

Pyramids of Dahshour

Sakkara

Sultan Hassan Mosque

Cairo Holidays

Legends on the Nile - 11 Nights Cairo, Luxor, Abu Simbel, Aswan

12 Days / 11 Nights

Spend two nights in Cairo and then fly to Upper Egypt. There, you will be introduced to ancient wonders as you sail to legendary attractions.

fromUSD SELECT

Five in One Trip - 7 Nights Cairo, Abu Soma, Madinat Makadi

8 Days / 7 Nights

Get out the best of Golf Courses in Egypt, in one exciting trip, from Cairo, to Hurghada, Madinat Makadi, Soma Bay, to El Gouna and back.

fromUSD SELECT

Mini Safari - 2 Nights Cairo, Mersa Matruh, Siwa

3 Days / 2 Nights

Three days of excavating the Egyptian Sahara, in a fun and professionally equipped safari.

fromUSD SELECT

An Alexander the Great Tour - 7 Nights Cairo, Alexandria, Mersa Matruh, Bahariya Oasis

8 Days / 7 Nights

An expedition in search of excitement; start off the fun from Cairo, to Alexandria, to the Sahara. Adventurous mornings, with lots to see and discover, followed by glittering stars at night.

fromUSD SELECT

Full Day Mini Safari Cairo, Fayoum

1 Days / Nights

We will take you on a safari in the heart of Fayoum; an adventure taking you back in time as you enjoy the natural views of the city.

fromUSD SELECT

Off the Beaten Path - 7 Nights Farafra Oasis, Cairo, Bahariya Oasis, Al Dakhla Oasis, Al Kharga Oasis, Luxor

8 Days / 7 Nights

A trip that will take you to wondrous places, starting off from Cairo, to Bahariya, the White desert and Farafra, Dakhla, Kharga, Baris & Luxor. A 7 night adventure, off the beaten path.

fromUSD SELECT

Egypt’s Treasures – 7 Nights Cairo, Aswan, Luxor

8 Days / 7 Nights

Discover Egypt's treasures in an 8 day vacation; where you will explore the highlights of Cairo, fly to Aswan and sail to Luxor on board a 5 star cruise ship.

fromUSD SELECT

The Best of Three – 14 Nights Cairo, Luxor, Hurghada, Aswan

15 Days / 14 Nights

Start off at Luxor and cruise down the Nile to Aswan for a preview of cultural grandness, followed by a stop at Cairo, the heart of Egypt, and then relax in Hurghada and enjoy the sun.

fromUSD SELECT

The Great Wonders of Egypt - 9 Nights Cairo, Aswan, Luxor

10 Days / 9 Nights

A ten day tour, unfolding the great wonders of Egypt throughout Cairo, Aswan, Kom Ombo, Edfu & Luxor.

fromUSD SELECT

Around Egypt in 15 Days - 14 Nights Luxor, Cairo, Alexandria, Hurghada

15 Days / 14 Nights

Let us take you on a journey across beautiful Egypt to experience the diversity it has to offer. From cruising the Nile from Luxor to Aswan, followed by a visit to Cairo and Alexandria; to unwinding by the Red Sea, under the shining sun in Hurghada.

fromUSD SELECT

The Best of Two Spots - 7 Nights Cairo, Madinat Makadi

8 Days / 7 Nights

Count on us to guide you through the best of Golf Courses in Cairo and Madinat Makadi.

fromUSD SELECT

The Best of Both Worlds – 14 Nights Cairo, Aswan, Luxor, Hurghada

15 Days / 14 Nights

Get to experience the best of what Egypt has to offer, the best of two worlds; between the historical outstanding culture and the tranquility of its beaches and nature.

fromUSD SELECT

Mini Safari - 1 Night Cairo, Bahariya Oasis

2 Days / 1 Nights

Let us take you on a memorable two day safari in the heart of the desert.

fromUSD SELECT

Charming Culture of Egypt – 7 Nights Cairo, Aswan, Luxor

8 Days / 7 Nights

Unfold Egypt's charming culture, as you visit the highlights of Cairo and then sail from Aswan to Luxor on a 5 star cruise ship.

fromUSD SELECT

A Legnedary Vacation – 7 Nights Cairo, Luxor, Aswan

8 Days / 7 Nights

Enjoy the best of Cultural Egypt by visiting Luxor, and take a relaxing cruise down to Aswan, passing by Esna, Edfu, and Kom Ombo; from Aswan fly to Cairo, the heart of modern Egypt.

fromUSD SELECT

North Coast of Egypt - 7 Nights Cairo, Alexandria, Mersa Matruh, Siwa

8 Days / 7 Nights

Experience the North Coast of Egypt in an exciting road trip from Cairo to Alexandria, passing by Alamein to Marsa Matruh to Siwa and more.

fromUSD SELECT

Explore Egypt in 15 Days - 14 Nights Cairo, Alexandria, Luxor, Marsa Alam

15 Days / 14 Nights

A beautiful journey across Egypt, starting off by Cairo & Alexandria followed by a fascinating cruise down the Nile from Luxor to Aswan; at the end of the journey, unwind by the Red Sea, under the shining sun in Masra Alam.

fromUSD SELECT

A Fine Golf Experience - 7 Nights Cairo, Ain El Sokhna

8 Days / 7 Nights

A Golf trip across Egypt’s finest courses in Cairo & Ain Sokhna, a must not miss experience in the world of a top notch sport.

fromUSD SELECT

Half Day Mini Safari Cairo

1 Days / Nights

The best of the Egyptian Sahara experience in one day.

fromUSD SELECT

Scuba Diving in Cairo, the Red Sea

Sharm El Sheikh lies at the tip of the Sinai Peninsula in the Red Sea. It offers a variety of dive sites from reefs and walls to wrecks. The climate is hot, the water is warm and clear, and the reefs are covered in life. Diving is readily available everywhere and there are nearly fifty dive Centers in the region. More Europeans learn to dive here than anywhere else in the world and diving is ideal for beginners. Whatever your experience, dive Centers require you to do one local dive before they will take you on a boat trip in order to give you an opportunity to orient yourself to Red Sea diving.

Shopping and Leisure in Cairo

For those who love to shop, Sharm El-Sheikh provides ample opportunities to indulge in retail therapy. Sharm El Sheikh is famous for producing jewellery, leather goods and rugs. Expect to haggle when shopping in Sharm El Sheikh! It is all part of the experience and the shop owners will be shocked if you don’t try to negotiate! The majority of shops and shopping centres are based in Naama Bay but Sharm Old Market is great for hunting out bargains. If you want real value for money you should go south-west to Dahab which is less busy and less commercialised than Sharm.

There is more to Sharm El-Sheikh than beaches, sea and shopping of course. It’s a well developed area that feels “European” with refined hotels, facilities and amenities. Sharm el Sheikh has a fantastic range of restaurants, bars and cafes to visit as well as the hotels own all inclusive menus. The market area in Old Sharm is popular for its abundance of seafood restaurants and cheap prices. For those wanting a romantic evening, head to the” On Deck” restaurant in the Iberotel Lido hotel in Naama Bay where you can dine on a pontoon overlooking the water. The Il Mercato promenade, often called “Les Champs Elysee” of Sinai close to the Iberotel IL Mercato Hotel offers a varied selection of excellent cafes and restaurants.

There’s even an 18-hole Championship golf course in Jolie Ville Golf Resort, located only five kilometres from the main hotels in Sharm el Sheikh which is open to non guests. It includes a driving range and artificial lakes and is a perfect escape for those who love the game.

Cairo Nightlife

Pacha

Pacha is situated in the of Naama bay , and is the premier party place in Sharm El Sheikh that embodies the essence of the Pacha spirit with a twist of mystical Arabia added for pure indulgence.

Little Buddha

Little Buddha is located in the heart of Naama Bay , and being one of the hottest venues in Sharm El Sheikh, it provides its clientele with the finest dining experience, an eclectic atmosphere, sublime surroundings, and the latest sounds from around the globe.

Hard Rock Cafe

When in Egypt, knock the Sinai sand from your sandals and settle into the Hard Rock Cafe Sharm El Sheikh for a tall cool drink to quench your parched throat. The restaurant's huge guitar and sky dome act as an oasis beckoning every desert denizen to a good time. It provides a fascinating atmosphere and mouthwatering dishes.

Camel Bar

It is a two-storey restaurant/bar that offers both indoor and outdoor areas. The lower floor is an ideal venue for those willing to indulge in a drink along with lively music, while the top floor overlooks Naama Bay and offers a more relaxing atmosphere with number of sumptuous international dishes and shisha.